David Carpenter is a Professor of Medieval History at King’s College London and author of ‘Magna Carta’, published by Penguin Classics.
Magna Carta, forced on King John in 1215 by rebellion, is one of the most famous documents in world history. It asserts a fundamental principle: that the ruler is subject to the law. David Carpenter’s commentary draws on new discoveries to give an entirely fresh account of Magna Carta’s text, origins, survival and enforcement, showing how it quickly gained a central place in English political life.
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Parental alienation, a family dynamic in which one parent engages in behaviors that are likely to foster a child’s unjustified rejection of the other parent, is all too common. By some estimates 80% of all divorcing parents engage in some PA behaviors (Clawar & Rivlin, 1992). Although, not all children exposed to PA behaviors become alienated (unjustifiably reject one parent and align with the other), rates of alienation in children may be as high as 1% (Bernet, Boch-Galhau, Baker, & Morrison, 2010). A body of research now exists establishing the negative long-term effects of exposure to PA behaviors for children (e.g., Baker & Eichler, 2014; Bernet, Baker, & Verrocchio, 2015; Verrocchio & Baker, 2015). Some research, along with a host of memoirs, also documents the extremely painful experience of alienation for the targeted parents (e.g., Baker, 2006; Baker, & 2006; Baker & Fine, 2014).
Many targeted parents find themselves…
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The qualifications below can be used as a checklist to identify true expertise as opposed to limited or pseudo-expertise. It is imperative for the expert to have a strong background and training in relevant areas—rooted in sound science and the scientific method. While experience as a targeted/alienated parent, or perhaps a formerly-alienated child, can be very helpful, personal experience alone is not enough. We believe that it is this scientific educational background—applied to the phenomenon of PA—that separates truth from ideology, fact from fiction, and good advice from bad. Though a genuine expert might not meet every one of these criteria—for instance, an excellent clinician might not have published any scientific papers—a true expert should have most of these.
1. An advanced degree (masters or doctoral) from an accredited educational institution in a relevant discipline or field. This is not meant to trivialize the importance of some lay counselors and coaches who…
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Refugees sleep outside the entrance of the Swedish Migration Agency’s arrival center for asylum seekers at Jagersro in Malmo, Sweden, November 20, 2015. REUTERS/Stig-Ake Jonsson/TT News Agency
STOCKHOLM (Reuters) – Sweden will introduce tighter border controls and asylum rules in a bid to reduce the number of asylum seekers reaching the country, the government said on Tuesday.
“The aim of the measures we are presenting now is to create a breathing space for Sweden’s asylum system,” Prime Minister Stefan Lofven told reporters.
The government said it planned to widen the number of asylum seekers receiving temporary asylum with the only exception being those coming to Sweden under international quota agreements.
In addition, the country will introduce ID checks on all public transport into the country from the continent and tighten rules for family reunion.
The Nordic country is struggling to cope with up to 190,000 asylum seekers expected this…
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